How Dynamical Systems Can Reveal the Origins of Planets Large and Small
Trent Dupuy
Gemini Observatory

The motion of bodies in a planetary system can be used to reveal key fundamental parameters, like mass, and also provide a window into its dynamical history. My work using Gaia data in concert with Hipparcos, high-contrast imaging astrometry, and host-star radial velocities has opened the door to accurate empirical masses for directly imaged companions, including stars, stellar remnants, brown dwarfs, and giant planets. Because mass is a key property needed to distinguish between models of gas-giant evolution, this work will have major implications for inferring the demographics of outer solar systems from direct imaging surveys. On the other end of the planetary size and orbit scale, the most common type of close-in planets found by Kepler are super-Earths, and our understanding of their origins is only in its infancy. The orbital architectures of binary systems hosting planets offer special tests of planet formation not possible in single-star systems. Using ground-based AO astrometry to measure binary orbits, my work has been able to constrain the amount of material needed to form small planets in the Kepler-444 system and to test what conditions are most favorable for forming planets in a statistical sample. I will conclude by discussing the major advances that will be made possible across both of these fields with new and upcoming facilities like TESS, JWST, and TMT.