The Institute for Astronomy (IfA) is the astronomical research organization
of the University of Hawaii (UH). Its headquarters is located in
Honolulu on the island of Oahu near the University of Hawaii at Manoa,
the main UH campus. It also maintains offices in Waiakoa on the island
of Maui and in Hilo on the island of Hawaii. The IfA is responsible
for administering and maintaining the infrastructure for the Haleakala
High Altitude Observatory Site on Maui and for Mauna Kea Observatories
(MKO) on Hawaii.
The scientific staff during this report period consisted of Joshua
E. Barnes, Ann M. Boesgaard, Wolfgang Brandner, Fabio Bresolin,
Douglas Burke, Schelte J. Bus, Kenneth C. Chambers, Antoinette
Songaila Cowie, Lennox L. Cowie, Harald Ebeling, Isabella M. Gioia,
Donald N. B. Hall, James N. Heasley, J. Patrick Henry, George
H. Herbig, Klaus-Werner Hodapp, Esther M. Hu, David C. Jewitt,
Robert D. Joseph, Nick Kaiser, Richard Knabb, Rolf-Peter Kudritzki
(Director), Jeffrey R. Kuhn, Barry J. LaBonte, Jing Li, Haosheng
Lin, Gerard A. Luppino, Eugene A. Magnier, Eduardo L. Martín,
Robert A. McLaren, Karen J. Meech, Donald L. Mickey, Tobias C.
Owen, Andrew J. Pickles, John T. Rayner, Claude Roddier, François
J. H. Roddier, David B. Sanders, Theodore Simon, Alan Stockton,
David J. Tholen, Alan T. Tokunaga, John L. Tonry, R. Brent Tully,
William D. Vacca, Richard J. Wainscoat, and Gareth Wynn-Williams.
Postdoctoral fellows included Andisheh Mahdavi (Chandra Fellow),
Hervé Aussel (James Clerk Maxwell Fellow), Amy Barger (Hubble
Fellow and Chandra Fellow at Large), Pierre Baudoz, Yanga R. Fernandez,
Michael Liu (Parrent Fellow), and Jana Pittichova (NATO-NSF Postdoctoral
Two students, Kevin Jim and Christopher Mullis, completed requirements
for the Ph.D. degree. The other graduate students during the report
period were Sean Andrews, James Armstrong, Elizabeth Barrett, Brian
Barris, James Bauer, George Bendo, Sandrine Bottinelli, Peter Capak,
Michael Connelley, Michael Cushing, Scott Dahm, David Donovan,
Cyrus Hall, Henry Hsieh, Catherine Ishida, Yuko Kakazu, Dale Kocevski,
Sebastien Lefranc, Elizabeth McGrath, Megan Novicki, Daniel Potter,
Barry Rothberg, Scott Sheppard, Brian Stalder, Robert Thornton,
and Wei-Hao Wang. For more information about the graduate program,
see its Web page.
Visiting colleagues included Hervé Buoy, Oliver Czoske,
Miwa Goto, Olivier Guyon, Sebastien Matte, Steven Miller, Ralph
Neuhaeuser, Bradford Smith, and Ralph Timmermeester.
Rolf-Peter Kudritzki became director of the IfA in October 2000.
Prior to that, he was professor of astronomy and director of the
Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik (University Observatory)
at the University of Munich. Fabio Bresolin, a colleague of Kudritzki's
in Munich, arrived in August 2001. Both Kudritzki and Bresolin
specialize in the study of hot massive stars.
George Herbig retired and was granted emeritus status. Claude
Roddier and François Roddier retired at the end of 2000.
The telescopes in operation during the report period were the
UH 2.2-m and 0.6-m telescopes; the 3-m NASA Infrared Telescope
Facility (IRTF), operated by the UH under a contract with NASA;
the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), operated by the
Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation on behalf of the National
Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique of France, and UH; the 3.8-m United Kingdom Infrared
Telescope (UKIRT), operated in Hawaii by the Joint Astronomy Centre
(JAC) based in Hilo on behalf of the Particle Physics and Astronomy
Research Council of the United Kingdom; the 15-m James Clerk Maxwell
Telescope (JCMT), a submillimeter telescope operated by the JAC
on behalf of the United Kingdom, Canada, and the Netherlands; the
10.4-m Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO), operated by the
California Institute of Technology for the National Science Foundation
(NSF); the Hawaii antenna of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA),
operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); the
10-m Keck I and Keck II telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory,
which is operated by the California Association for Research in
Astronomy for the use of astronomers from the California Institute
of Technology, the University of California system, NASA, and UH;
the 8.3-m Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical
Observatory of Japan (NAOJ); and the 8.1-m Gemini North Telescope,
built by an international partnership and managed by the Association
of Universities for Research in Astronomy. At the Submillimeter
Array (SMA), installation and commissioning of the eight 6-m antennas
continued. The SMA is a collaborative project of the Smithsonian
Astrophysical Observatory and the Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics
of the Academia Sinica of Taiwan.
The past year has seen the implementation of the new management
structure for the Mauna Kea Science Reserve, as called for in the
Master Plan adopted by UH in June 2000. The Office of Mauna Kea
Management (OMKM) has been established at the University of Hawaii-Hilo
with a four-person interim staff. Since March, the OMKM has been
located in the IfA Hilo Facility (see Sec. 3.2). In August
2001, Bill Stormont was appointed permanent director of the OMKM,
and he was to begin serving in that capacity in October 2001. For
the past ten years, Stormont has managed the State's Natural Area
Reserve System on the Island of Hawaii. Also established is the
Mauna Kea Management Board, representing the various stakeholder
constituencies. This seven-person board meets at least once a month
and provides oversight for all activities within the Science Reserve.
The Board provides policy advice to OMKM and serves as the interface
between UH and the community. The third component of the management
structure is Kahu Ku Mauna, a council of Hawaiian elders that provides
advice on Hawaiian cultural matters.
Much of the effort during this first year was devoted to organizational
matters. Other accomplishments include publishing a quarterly newsletter,
``Ho`opono Mauna Kea''; creating a ranger/guide program on the
mountain to provide advice to visitors and to monitor activities;
closing the access road up the Poliahu cinder cone (a sacred Hawaiian
site) to vehicular traffic; and establishing a design review process
for new projects and starting this process for the Keck Outrigger
The 35,000-square-foot (3,300-m2) IfA Hilo Facility,
completed in the fall of 2000, provides a state-of-the-art operations
base for the IfA's activities on Mauna Kea, plus expansion space
for our research, instrumentation, teaching, and outreach programs.
The IfA Hilo Facility is now fully operation, with 32 IfA employees
based there, including 15 from IRTF. The building also houses 3
UH Hilo astronomers, OMKM, the nascent Mauna Kea Astronomy Education
Center, and several other UH Hilo programs.
Mees Solar Observatory supports IfA solar scientists in data
acquisition by running diverse observational programs with its
telescope cluster. The observatory regularly co-observes with the
satellites Yohkoh, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO ),
and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE ),
and also participates in special satellite and ground-based observatory
campaigns. One of the unique observational capabilities at Mees
is the ability to perform measurements of the temporal evolution
of photospheric vector magnetic fields. The observatory's complement
of instruments includes the Imaging Vector Magnetograph (IVM),
Haleakala Stokes Polarimeter, Mees CCD Imaging Spectrograph (MCCD),
Mees White Light Telescope, and Coronal Limb Imagers.
Active instrumentation projects include adding rapid wavelength
selection to the IVM to permit sequential photospheric and chromospheric
magnetic observations, and a new CCD camera and data system for
the MCCD for high-speed spectral imaging in collaboration with
the upcoming High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI ),
a Small Explorer Program (SMEX) mission.
LURE is a satellite laser ranging (SLR) observatory. LURE utilizes
a high-powered pulsed laser to obtain distance measurements to
satellites in Earth orbit. LURE is funded by the Space Geodesy
Networks and Sensor Calibration Office of NASA Goddard Space Flight
Center. The missions of the target satellites include monitoring
of Earth resources and climate parameters, measurements of ocean
levels and temperatures, plate tectonics, the improvement of the
Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as special missions related
to the physics of tethered satellite systems. LURE provides range
data to NASA 7 days a week, and improvements to the computer system
and to the operational procedures will soon allow LURE to operate
on a 24-hour schedule.
Haleakala Observatories is under contract to the Air Force Research
Laboratories to conduct a research program known as the AEOS-Haleakala
Atmospheric Characterization (AHAC). This program supports the
U.S. Air Force Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) Telescope
on Haleakala by providing comprehensive atmospheric characterization
and timely prediction of inclement weather conditions at the observatory
site. The instrument suite that supports these site measurements
includes a daytime/nighttime optical seeing monitor and a network
of remote meteorological systems linked by radio modems. The optical
seeing monitor captures star image data at high frame rates and
uses a differential image motion technique to allow the computation
of seeing statistics over intervals of a few seconds. Data from
the remote meteorology stations are processed using an artificial
intelligence program to generate locally specific predictions of
adverse weather events on a time horizon of 30 minutes.
The 2-m Multicolor Active Galactic Nuclei Monitoring (MAGNUM)
Telescope is dedicated to studying the variation of light from
active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The project is a collaboration between
the University of Tokyo and UH. The main scientific objective of
MAGNUM is to measure distances to AGNs and quasars up to z = 1.
The telescope is designed to be operated remotely and to conduct
observations autonomously. For more information, see the
MAGNUM Web page.
The Solar-C instrument is a 0.5-m off-axis coronagraphic reflecting
telescope adjacent to the Mees Solar Observatory. It had its first
light in August 2001. This instrument (1) allows coronal observations
that have not been realized, even from space, (2) develops technology
that IfA scientists believe will be used for future satellite observations,
and (3) supports several long-term coronal observing platforms that
extend intermittent coronal space observations. Unlike most telescopes,
light strikes the Solar-C mirrors off axis, at an angle to their
surfaces. No light is blocked, reflected, scattered, or diffracted
by the mirrors or their support structure aside from the superpolished
The visible arm of the AEOS spectrometer is now working and saw
its first research program in a worldwide campaign to study the
spectral signature of M dwarf flare stars. The infrared arm of
the echelle has been cold-tested and will be assembled on the summit
of Haleakala by the end of 2001.
The UH/IfA adaptive optics system, H¯ok¯upa`a, continued
to be used as a visitor instrument on the Gemini North telescope.
It is available to the entire Gemini community. Work on a new curvature-sensing
AO system, similar to H¯ok¯upa`a but with 85 actuators
instead of 36, continued at the IfA. The intention now is to mount
this new system on Gemini South toward the end of 2002 or beginning
New MIT Lincoln Labs CCDs have been obtained to replace the detectors
currently used in the UH 8K mosaic camera. The new devices will
improve the quantum efficiency over most of the spectral range
by a factor of between 2 and 3, with much better cosmetic quality.
Heasley was appointed outreach coordinator. He initiated the publication
of monthly star charts and a quarterly newsletter to be sent to members
of the Friends of Hawaii Astronomy and other interested parties.
Open houses for the general public were held at the Manoa and Hilo
facilities, and included lectures, tours, and displays.
The summer of 2001 marked the third year of support under a five-year
NSF grant for the TOPS (Toward Other Planetary Systems) teacher
enhancement program. Originally developed by Meech as a one-week
program in 1993, the workshops are now three weeks of intensive
astronomy training for teachers and high school students. This
year 26 teachers and 20 students participated in the workshop.
TOPS emphasizes incorporating astronomy into physics, math, chemistry,
biology, and earth sciences classes. Teachers are introduced to
classroom tools, techniques, and activities they can employ in
their own classes. Computer skills development and student assessment
and evaluation techniques are also emphasized.
The teachers and students participate in a wide variety of hands-on
activities ranging from archeoastronomy to grinding telescope mirrors.
Every clear night during the program, they engage in observing
projects that use small telescopes. Their observing projects vary
from simple visual observations of the moon, planets, and nebulae
to deep-sky astrophotography to sophisticated variable star observations
using a CCD camera. One of the highlights of the workshop is a
tour of Mauna Kea Observatories.
IfA faculty members are frequent lecturers for the TOPS program.
This year, Heasley, Joseph, Kudritzki, Kuhn, LaBonte, Lin, and
Tokunaga made presentations to the TOPS teachers. TOPS also benefits
from a core of volunteers from the Bishop Museum (Honolulu) and
the Hawaiian Astronomical Society.
Support for the TOPS workshops also comes from private donations
and in-kind support from NASA. For the second year in a row, three
staff members from the Astrobiology Institute at NASA Ames Research
Center worked, at NASA's expense, with the TOPS teachers and students.
Gretchen Walker (University of Maryland), the outreach coordinator
for NASA's ``Deep Impact" mission to Comet/P Temple 2, worked with
the teachers on demonstrations of cratering processes. The NASA
IRTF also provided support.
Another long-standing supporter of TOPS is Janet Mattei, the director
of the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO).
She spends two weeks each summer with the TOPS teachers and students
to lecture on variable stars, to introduce them to the Hands On
Astrophysics exercises AAVSO has developed, and to assist with
The IfA and the Faulkes Telescope Corporation are collaborating
to locate a 2-m telescope facility at the University's Haleakala
High Altitude Observatory site on Maui. The telescope's construction
will be financed by the Dill Faulkes Educational Trust of the United
Kingdom (UK) and will be named in honor of Dr. Martin ``Dill" Faulkes,
the founder of the trust.
On September 7, 2001, the UH Board of Regents approved the Operating & Site
Development Agreement for the Faulkes Telescope Project and the
lease for the telescope site. On September 14, the State of Hawaii
Board of Land and Natural Resources approved the IfA's Conservation
District Use Application to place the Faulkes Telescope on Haleakala.
With the achievement of these two milestones, the site work for
the telescope was scheduled to begin in the fall of 2001. Plans
call for the telescope to be operational in 2002.
The Faulkes Telescope Project will draw on young people's interest
in astronomy to teach them what science is. It will offer students
in the UK and Hawaii hands-on research experience. Students will
conduct research projects under the mentoring of their teachers
and professional astronomers. In Hawaii, access to the telescope
will be available to public and private schools and to the science
programs of the UH system and other local colleges. The Faulkes
Telescope will be the world's largest dedicated to K-12 and undergraduate
education, and outreach. It will be operated remotely from control
centers in the UK and on Maui.
The first instrument to be installed will be a state-of-the-art
electronic camera with 4 million pixels. Later, funds will be sought
to add an infrared camera to allow operation of the telescope during
Heasley is the IfA project scientist for Faulkes Telescope Project.
6.3 Research Experiences
for Undergraduates and
Two new outreach programs at the IfA, Research Experiences for
Undergraduates (REU) and Research Experiences for Teachers (RET),
began in the summer of 2001. The REU program is supported by a
five-year grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF). The
NSF is also providing supplementary funds for the RET program.
Heasley is the principal investigator, and Meech is the co-investigator.
The REU students spent 10-12 weeks as full-time research assistants
to a faculty mentor. The students received travel money and a stipend
to cover living expenses.
The two teachers in the RET program were both former participants
in the TOPS Teacher Enhancement workshops. They worked with Meech
and Heasley on the analysis of observations of Kuiper Belt objects
obtained at the UH 2.2-m telescope and participated in this ongoing
observing program. The purpose of this project is to begin developing
a science curriculum that will use observations taken with the
Faulkes Telescope. Since the UH telescope is about the same size
as the Faulkes Telescope, the observations are approximately equivalent.
The REU and RET programs received additional support from Sun
Microsystems, which loaned the IfA a Sunray server and eight workstation
displays for participants' use.
Listed below are the major areas of research at the IfA, followed
by the names of those active in that area (some names are listed
more than once). Further information about research activities
can be found at the
research section of the Web site, on the home pages of individual
faculty members (accessible through the faculty
Web page), and in the list of publications. See Sec. 5
for more information about instrumentation projects.
Star formation and interstellar matter: Aussel, Brandner,
Hodapp, Liu, Magnier, Martín, Rayner, Tokunaga, and Wynn-Williams.
Stellar astronomy: Boesgaard, Bresolin, Heasley, Herbig,
Solar system astronomy: Bus, Fernandez, Jewitt, Meech,
Owen, Pittichova, and Tholen.
Solar physics: Kuhn, LaBonte, Li, Lin, and Mickey.
Theoretical studies: Barnes, Kaiser, and Szapudi.
Instrumentation: Baudoz, Brandner, Hodapp, Luppino, Mickey,
Rayner, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, Stockton, Tokunaga, and Tonry.
Publications in Calendar Year 2000
The following articles and books were published during calendar
year 2000. The names of authors listed as affiliated with IfA
in each article are in boldface. The link, in most cases to an
entry in the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), provides at
least an abstract. More recent publications are listed at on
Blakeslee, J. P.; Davis, M.; Tonry, J. L.; Ajhar, E. A.;
Dressler, A. Comparing the SBF Survey Velocity Field with the Gravity
Field from Redshift Surveys. In Cosmic Flows 1999: Towards an Understanding
of Large-Scale Structure, ed. S. Courteau, M. A. Strauss, & J.
A. Willick. ASP Conf. Ser. 201, 352-359 (2000)
Boehnhardt, H.; Hainaut, O.; Delahodde, C.; West, R.; Meech,
K.; Marsden, B. A
Pencil-Beam Search for Distant TNOs at the ESO NTT. In Minor
Bodies in the Outer Solar System, ed. A. Fitzsimmons, D. Jewitt, & R.
M. West. ESO Astrophysics Symposia (Springer), 117-123 (2000)
Clowe, D.; Luppino, G. A.; Kaiser, N.; Gioia,
I. M. Weak Lensing Observations of High-Redshift Clusters
of Galaxies. In Clustering at High Redshift, ed. A. Mazure, O.
LeFèvre, & V. Le Brun. ASP Conf. Ser. 200, 248-252
Cruikshank, D. P.; Schmitt, B.; Roush, T. L.; Owen, T. C.;
Quirico, E.; Geballe, T. R.; de Bergh, C.; Bartholomew, M. J.;
Dalle Ore, C. M.; Douté, S.; Meier, R. Water Ice on Triton. Icarus, 147, 309- 316 (2000)
Delahodde, C. E.; Hainaut, O. R.; Bohnhardt, H.; Dotto, E.; Barucci,
M. A.; West, R. M.; Meech, K. J. Physical Observations of
1996 TO66. In Minor
Bodies in the Outer Solar System, ed. A. Fitzsimmons, D. Jewitt & R.
M. West. ESO Astrophysics Symposia (Springer), 61-63 (2000)
Ebeling, H.; Mullis, C.; Tully, B. Closing
the Gap: An X-ray Selected Sample of Clusters of Galaxies behind
the Galactic Plane. In Large Scale Structure in the X-ray Universe,
ed. M. Plionis & I. Georgantopoulos (Paris: Atlantisciences),
Ebeling, H.; Mullis, C.; Tully, R. B. CIZA:
The First Systematic X-Ray Search for Clusters of Galaxies behind
the Milky Way. In Mapping the Hidden Universe: The Universe behind
the Milky Way, the Universe in HI, ed. R.
C. Kraan-Korteweg, P. A. Henning, & H. Andernach. ASP Conf.
Ser. 218, 79-91 (2000)
Ellison, S. L.; Schaye, J.; Pettini, M.; Songaila, A. Mining
for Metals in the Lya Forest. In Cosmic
Evolution and Galaxy Formation: Structure, Interactions, and Feedback,
ed. J. Franco, et al. ASP Conf. Ser. 215, 283-286 (2000)
Joseph, R. D.; Kuhn, J. R.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Coulter,
R.; Ftaclas, C.; Graves, J. E.; Hull, C. L.; Jewitt,
D.; Mickey, D. L.; Moretto, G.; Neill, D.; Northcott,
M. J.; Roddier, C. A.; Roddier, F. J.; Siegmund,
W. A.; Owen, T. C.NPT: A Large-Aperture Telescope for High Dynamic Range Astronomy. Proc.
SPIE, 4005, 333-339 (2000)
Kawara, K., et al., including Cowie, L. L.; Joseph,
R. D.; Sanders, D. B. ISO Deep Far-Infrared Survey
in the Lockman Hole. In ISO Surveys of a Dusty Universe, ed.
D. Lemke, M. Stickel, & K. Wilke Lecture Notes in Physics
548 (Springer), 49-53 (2000)
Knabb, R. D.; McLaren, R.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat,
R.; Businger, S.; Ogasawara, R.; Simons, D.; Mountain, M.
Real-Time Mesoscale Numerical Simulations in Support of Astronomical
Operations at Mauna Kea Observatories. In 24th Conference on
Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Fort Lauderdale, FL. 29
May-2 June, 2000. (American Meteorological Society), 406-407
Lunine, J. I.; Owen, T. C.; Brown, R. H. The Outer Solar
System: Chemical Constraints at Low Temperatures on Planet Formation.
In Protostars and Planets IV, ed. V. Mannings, A. P. Boss, & S.
S. Russell (Univ. Arizona Press), 1055-1080 (2000)
Mahaffy, P. R.; Niemann, H. B.; Alpert, A.; Atreya, S. K.; Demick,
J.; Donahue, T. M.; Harpold, D. N.; Owen, T. C. Noble Gas
Abundance and Isotope Ratios in the Atmosphere of Jupiter from
the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 15061-15072
Matsuhara, H., et al., including Cowie, L. L.; Joseph,
R. D.; Sanders, D. B. Power Spectrum Analysis of Far-Infrared
Sky Brightness in the Lockman Hole. In ISO Surveys of a Dusty
Universe, ed. D. Lemke, M. Stickel, & K. Wilke. Lecture Notes
in Physics 548 (Springer), 106-112 (2000)
McCreight, C.; Fowler, A.; Greene, T.; Greenhouse, M.; Martineau,
R.; Hall, D., et al. Interim Report: Review of Detector
Requirements for NGST. In Next Generation Space Telescope Science
and Technology, ed. E. P. Smith & K. S. Long. ASP Conf. Ser.
207, 385-389 (2000)
Meech, K. J. (2000). Bioastronomy `99: Meeting Overview.
In Bioastronomy `99: A New Era in Bioastronomy, ed. G. A. Lemarchand & K.
J. Meech. ASP Conf. Ser. 213, 23-34 (2000)
Meech, K. J.Cometary
Origin and Evolution. In Bioastronomy `99: A New Era in Bioastronomy,
ed. G. A. Lemarchand & K. J. Meech. ASP Conf. Ser. 213, 207-216
Meech, K. J.; Hainaut, O. R.; Marsden, B. G. Comet Size
Distributions and Distant Activity. In Minor Bodies in the Outer
Solar System, ed. A. Fitzsimmons, D. Jewitt, & R. M. West.
ESO Astrophysics Symposia (Springer), 75-79 (2000)
Meech, K. J., et al. Deep Impact-Exploring the Interior
of a Comet. In Bioastronomy `99: A New Era in Bioastronomy, ed.
G. A. Lemarchand & K. J. Meech. ASP Conf. Ser. 213, 235-242
Meech, K. J.; Slater, T. F.; Mattei, J. A.; Kadooka, M.
Pacific Teacher Enhancement Program. In Bioastronomy `99: A
New Era in Bioastronomy, ed. G. A. Lemarchand & K. J. Meech.
ASP Conf. Ser. 213, 679-684 (2000)
Mirabel, F.; Sanders, D. B.; Le Floc'h, E. Gamma-Ray Bursts
as a Cosmic Window for Galaxy Formation. In Cosmic Evolution and
Galaxy Formation: Structure, Interactions, and Feedback, ed. J.
Franco, et al. ASP Conf. Ser. 215, 192-196 (2000)
Mullis, C. R. Large-Scale Structure in the ROSAT North
Ecliptic Pole Survey. In Large Scale Structure in the X-ray Universe,
ed. M. Plionis & I. Georgantopoulos (Paris: Atlantisciences),
Owen, T. C. The Prevalence of Earth-like Planets (Pesek
Lecture, Beijing, China: October 1996). Acta Astronautica, 46,
Owen, T. C.; Bar-Nun, A. From the Interstellar Medium to
Planetary Atmospheres via Comets. In Bioastronomy `99: A New Era
in Bioastronomy, ed. G. A. Lemarchand & K. J. Meech. ASP Conf.
Ser. 213, 207-216 (2000)
Owen, T. C.; Bar-Nun, A. Volatile Contributions from Icy
Planetesimals. In Origin of the Earth and Moon, ed. R. M. Camp
and K. Righter (Univ. of Arizona Press), 459-471 (2000)
Owen, T. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S.
K.; Donahue, T. M.; Bar-Nun, A.; de Pater, I. Chemistry in the
Outer Solar System. In Astrochemistry: From Molecular Clouds to
Planetary Systems, ed. Y. C. Minh & E. F. Van Dishoeck. IAU
Symposium 197, 483-490 (2000)
Roddier, F.; Roddier, C.; Graves, J. E.; Northcott,
M. J.; Owen, T. Erratum: Neptune's Cloud Structure
and Activity: Ground-based Monitoring with Adaptive Optics, Volume
136, Number 1, pp. 168-172 (1998). Icarus, 148, 320 (2000)
Sanders, D. B.; Kim, D. C.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Surace,
J. A.; Jensen, J. B. The Hosts of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies. In XVth IAP Meeting: Dynamics
of Galaxies: From the Early Universe, ed. F. Combes, G. A. Mamon, & V.
Charmandaris. ASP Conf. Ser. 197, 295-300 (2000)
Saunders, W.; D'Mellow, K.; Tully, B., et al. The Behind
the Plane Survey. In Cosmic Flows 1999: Towards an Understanding
of Large-Scale Structure, ed. S. Courteau, M. A. Strauss, & J.
A. Willick. ASP Conf. Ser. 201, 237-241 (2000)
Saunders, W.; D'Mellow, K. J.; Tully, R. B., et al. The
Behind the Plane Survey. In Mapping the Hidden Universe: The Universe
behind the Milky Way, the Universe in HI,
ed. R. C. Kraan-Korteweg, P. A. Henning, & H. Andernach. ASP
Conf. Ser. 218, 153-156 (2000)
Saunders, W.; D'Mellow, K. J.; Valentine, H. Tully, R. B.,
et al. The IRAS View of the Local Universe. In Mapping the
Hidden Universe: The Universe behind the Milky Way, the Universe
in HI, ed. R. C. Kraan-Korteweg, P. A. Henning, & H.
Andernach. ASP Conf. Ser. 218, 141-152 (2000)
Shaya, E.; Peebles, P. J. E.; Phelps, S.; Tully, R. B..
Mass-to-Light Ratio Measurements of Galaxies, Groups, and Clusters
Using the Numerical Action Method. In Cosmic Flows 1999: Towards
an Understanding of Large-Scale Structure, ed. S. Courteau, M.
A. Strauss, & J. A. Willick. ASP Conf. Ser. 201, 352-359 (2000)
Stockton, A.; Canalizo, G. Recent Spectroscopy of
the 3C 48 Host Galaxy and a Simple Image Slicer Design. In Imaging
the Universe in Three Dimensions: Astrophysics Advanced Multi-Wavelength
Imaging Devices, ed. W. van Breugel & J. Bland-Hawthorn. ASP
Conf. Ser. 195, 385-390 (2000)
Tokunaga, A. T. Infrared Astronomy. In Allen's Astrophysical
Quantities, 4th ed., ed. A. N. Cox (Springer), 143-167 (2000)
Tokunaga, A. T.; Wada, S. A Laboratory Analog for the Carbonaceous
Material in the Interstellar Medium. In Bioastronomy `99: A New
Era in Bioastronomy, ed. G. A. Lemarchand & K. J. Meech. ASP
Conf. Ser. 213, 187-190 (2000)
Tonry, J. L.; Dressler, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Davis, M.;
Ajhar, E. A. The SBF Survey: First Results on Large-Scale Flows.
In Cosmic Flows 1999: Towards an Understanding of Large-Scale Structure,
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