The ordered nature of elliptical galaxies - Implications for their intrinsic angular momenta and shapes

Franx, M., Illingworth, G., & de Zeeuw, T. 1991. Ap. J. 383 112.

Results are presented of the observations of rotation along the major and minor axes of 38 elliptical galaxies to determine their intrinsic structure. A variety of models which are able to reproduce the observed distribution of apparent ellipticities and apparent kinematic misalignments are presented. It is argued from the presence of kinematical subsystems in the cores of NGC 4365 and NGC 4406 that the galaxies have angular momenta oriented close to the long axis. The results from models which include galaxies with large intrinsic misalignments suggest that 10-20 percent is a reasonable estimate of the fraction with such intrinsic misalignments. All solutions obtained give acceptable fits to the data.