Isophote shapes

Jedrzejewski, R.I. 1987, in de Zeeuw 1987, p. 37.

The shapes of the isophotes of elliptical galaxies are discussed. Ellipticity and position angle variations with distance from the centers of galaxies are described, as well as deviations from perfectly elliptical shape. The factors contributing to these deviations, in particular edge-on disks and boxiness, are described and portrayed.