Ay 101. Physics of Stars. 11 units (3-2-6); first term. Prerequisite: Ay 20. Physics of stellar atmospheres. Properties of stars, stellar spectra, radiative transfer, line formation. Stellar structure, stellar evolution, evolution of binaries. Nucleosynthesis in stars. Stellar oscillations. Instructors: W. Sargent, Cohen.

Ay 102. Physics of the Interstellar Medium. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisite: Ay 20. An introduction to fluid mechanics, sound waves, and shock waves. Introduction to magnetohydrodynamics, Alfvén waves, and plasma waves, with applications to the interstellar medium. Supernova remnants. The interstellar magnetic field. The physics of H I and H II regions. Instructors: W. Sargent, Scoville.

Ge/Ay 103. Introduction to the Solar System. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Geological and Planetary Sciences.

Ay 105. Optical Astronomy Instrumentation Lab. 9 units (1-6-2); second term. Prerequisite: Ay 20. An opportunity for astronomy and physics undergraduates (juniors and seniors) to gain firsthand experience with the basic instrumentation tools of modern optical and infrared astronomy. The 10 weekly lab experiments are expected to include radiometry measurements, geometrical optics, optical aberrations and ray tracing, spectroscopy, fiber optics, CCD electronics, CCD characterization, photon counting detectors, vacuum and cryogenic technology, and stepper motors and encoders. Instructor: Steidel.

Ay 121. Radiative Processes. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Ay 101 (undergraduates); Ph 125 or equivalent. The interaction of radiation with matter: radiative transfer, emission, and absorption. Compton processes, synchrotron radiation, collisional excitation, spectroscopy of atoms and molecules. Instructors: Phinney, Goldreich.

Ay 122. Astronomical Measurements and Instrumentation. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisite: Ph 106 or equivalent. Measurement and signal analysis techniques throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. Telescopes and interferometers; detectors and receivers; photometry and radiometry; imaging devices and image processing; spectrometers; space telescopes. Instructors: Steidel, A. Sargent.

Ay 123. Structure and Evolution of Interacting Binary Stars. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Ay 101 (undergraduates); Ph 125 or equivalent. Stellar structure and evolution in the context of exotic interacting binary stars (cataclysmic variables, X-ray binaries, black hole binaries, binary pulsars). Energy transport, nuclear fusion, stellar atmospheres (including external heating), loss of mass and angular momentum, advanced stages of evolution, tidal forcing, rotation, and magnetic dynamos will be covered with application to recent research on interacting binary stars containing compact objects. Instructor: Phinney.

Ay 124. Structure and Dynamics of Galaxies. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Ay 21 (undergraduates); Ph 106 or equivalent. Stellar dynamics and properties of galaxies; kinematics and dynamics of our galaxy; spiral structure; stellar composition, masses, and rotation of external galaxies; star clusters; galactic evolution; binaries, groups, and clusters of galaxies. Instructor: Ellis.

Ay 125. High-Energy Astrophysics. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: Ay 21 (undergraduates); Ph 106 or equivalent. High-energy astrophysics and the final stages of stellar evolution; supernovae, binary stars, accretion disks, pulsars; extragalactic radio sources; active galactic nuclei; black holes. Instructor: Readhead.

Ay 126. Interstellar Medium. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisite: Ay 102 (undergraduates). Physical processes in the interstellar medium. Ionization, thermal, and dynamic balance of interstellar medium, molecular clouds, hydrodynamics, magnetic fields, H II regions, supernova remnants, star formation, global structure of interstellar medium. Instructors: W. Sargent, Scoville.

Ay 127. Cosmology and Galaxy Formation. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: Ay 21 (undergraduates) and Ph 106 or equivalent. Cosmology; extragalactic distance determinations; relativistic cosmological models; galaxy formation and clustering; thermal history of the universe, microwave background; nucleosynthesis; cosmological tests. Instructor: Djorgovski.

Ge/Ay 132. Atomic and Molecular Processes in Astronomy and Planetary Sciences. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Geological and Planetary Sciences.

Ge/Ay 133. The Formation, Evolution, and Detection of Planetary Systems. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Geological and Planetary Sciences.

Ay 141 abc. Research Conference in Astronomy. 3 units (1-0-2); first, second, third terms. Oral reports by astronomy students on current research. These provide an opportunity for practice in the organization and presentation of reports. A minimum of two presentations will be expected from each student each year. The presentations will be videotaped and critiqued by peers. This course fulfills the Institute communications requirement and is required of all astronomy graduate students who have passed their preliminary exams. It is also recommended for astronomy seniors. Graded pass/fail. Instructor: Ellis.

Ay 142. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Units in accordance with work accomplished. The student should consult a member of the department and have a definite program of research outlined. Approval by the student's adviser must be obtained before registering. 36 units of Ay 142 or Ay 143 required for candidacy. Graded pass/fail. Not offered 2000-2001.

Ay 143. Reading and Independent Study. Units in accordance with work accomplished. The student should consult a member of the department and have a definite program of reading and independent study outlined. Approval by the student's adviser must be obtained before registering. 36 units of Ay 142 or Ay 143 required for candidacy. Graded pass/fail. Not offered 2000-2001.

Ay/EE 144. Imaging at Radio, Infrared, and Optical Wavelengths by Interferometric and Adaptive Techniques. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. The theory of coherence, interferometry, and aperture synthesis observations at radio and visible wavelengths. The technique of adaptive optics to overcome atmosphere blurring at visible wavelengths. Emphasis is given to the formation of images with limited spatial frequency coverage, to applications in astronomy, geodesy, and high-resolution imaging with large optical telescopes. Relative emphasis on interferometric imaging versus adaptive optics will vary from year to year. Not offered 2000-2001.

Ay/Ph 145. Signal Processing and Data Analysis. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Statistical analysis and signal processing essential to observational and to experimental science. Topics: calculus of probability, Bayes theorem, distributions of single and multiple random variables, normal samples, parameter estimation, time series analysis of signals, Fourier transforms, convolution and correlation, sampling and digitizing, power spectrum measurement, digital filters. Examples from astronomy and physics. Not offered 2000-2001.

Ay 211. Extragalactic Astronomy. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Ay 127, Ay 124, and Ay 123. Not offered 2000-2001.

Ay 212. Topics in Astronomy: Cosmology and Particle Structure. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. This course will cover our current understanding of structure formation and cosmology and will form links with observations and numerical simulations. Topics: overview of basic FRW cosmology; growth of linear perturbations; CMBR anisotropies; nonlinear evolution of dark matter density contrast; abundances of structures; numerical simulation of dark matter; formation of baryonic structure; Universe at z<10 (absorption systems, high-z galaxies, IGM); hydro simulations; inflation and the very early Universe. Not offered 2000-2001.

Ay 215. Seminar in Theoretical Astrophysics. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Course for graduate students and seniors in astronomy and planetary science. Students will be required to lead some discussions. Topic changes each time the course is offered. Not offered 2000-2001.

Ay 218. High-Energy Astrophysics. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: Ay 125, Ph 106, and Ph 125 or equivalent. This course will primarily focus on gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These two objects are excellent physical laboratories of relativistic shocks and super-strong magnetic fields, respectively. Topics: observational summary of GRBs and afterglow emission; propagation, particle acceleration, and radiation from relativistic shocks; observational summary of SGRs and associated plerions; and super-strong magnetic fields inside neutron stars and their effects on photons outside. Graded pass/fail. Not offered 2000-2001.

Ph/Ay 221 abc. Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Physics.

Ge/Ay 226. Observational Planetary Astronomy. 9 units (3-3-3). For course description, see Geological and Planetary Sciences.

Ay 235. Research Seminar. 1 unit (1-0-0); third term. Will present seminars on current research interests of the astronomy faculty to graduate students during the fall term. Instructors: Staff. Not offered 2000-2001.