Mappings III Chronology

Mappings had its origins in the shock-modelling code developed by Mike Dopita in the mid-1970s, (Dopita, M.A., 1976 Ap J, 209, 395 - 4010). Since then, generations of ANU students have helped to build the powerful diagnostic tool that the code has since become.

In 1981 it was apparent that a more sophisticated solution of the time-dependent coupled ionization-cooling equations was required to ensure large dynamic range and stability, and Luc Binette developed the method of solution which represents the central engine of the code today. The first Mappings code incorporated these algorithms into a hierarchical structure designed by Mike Dopita and Luc Binette, with assistance from Dick Schwartz (U. Missouri). This permitted the code to be both easily maintainable and readily extendible. At the same time it was realized that the same code could be applied to both time-dependent and equilibrium photoionization modelling, and the first equilibrium photoionization modules were written by Luc Binette, while the shock modules were the work of Mike Dopita. This new code, now called Mappings (Modelling And Prediction in PhotoIonized Nebulae and Gasdynamic Shocks) was rapidly applied to a number of practical problems of both shock astrophysics and of HII regions (see Dopita, M.A., Binette, L. and Schwartz, R.D., 1982, ApJ, 261, 183 - 194, Dopita, M.A., Binette, L., D'Odorico, S. and Benvenuti, P., 1984, ApJ, 276, 653 - 666, Evans, I.N. and Dopita, M.A., 1985, ApJS, 58, 125 - 142 and Dopita, M.A. and Evans I.N., 1986, ApJ 307, 431 - 440.).

After he left the ANU, Luc Binette continued to develop his (Mexican) version of the Mappings code independently of the ANU Research school of Astronomy & Astrophysics (Australian) version of the code that is implemented here. The Mexican version is available on demand from Luc Binette .

Ralph Sutherland began working on Mappings in 1993 and made vast improvements in both the photoionization and shock modelling. In particular, he made the code able to operate over a much wider range of physical conditions and over the full range of ionization states, in addition, his organization of the atomic data into isoelectronic sequences allowed the estimation of many atomic parameters in the cases where accurate theoretical or observational data was lacking. Mappings thus became a useful tool for time-dependent X-ray shock diagnostics (Sutherland, R.S., and Dopita, M.A. 1993, ApJ Suppl. 88, 253 - 327). Ralph continues to work on the code. Ralph and Mark Allen produced the large shock grid which can be found on this website. Recently, Brent Groves introduced radiation pressure and more sophisticated dust modelling into Mappings as part of his PhD thesis. These new dust models include stochastic heating, which permitted a detailed calculation of the dust re-emission spectrum. The new dust models with radiation pressure (Dopita, M.A.; Groves, B. A.; Sutherland, R. S.; Binette, L. & Cecil, G. 2002, ApJ, 572, 753 - 761), are included in Mappings On-line. Lisa Kewley calculated the pre-run photoionization models (Kewley, L. J., Dopita, M. A., Sutherland, R. S., Heisler, C. A. & Trevena, J. 2001, ApJ., 556, 121 - 140) available from this web site.

In order to make Mappings more easily accessible to the general astronomical community, Lisa Kewley has developed this Mappings On-line web site, with the help of Claus Leitherer, Doug Mink, and Julia Chen. We hope that you enjoy its use, and derive many valuable astrophysical results. We ask, as a courtesy, that all publications resulting from, or assisted by, the use of Mappings on-line courtesy, that all publications resulting from, or assisted by, the use of Mappings on-line quote the fundamental reference papers listed below:

Photoionization models on-line: Kewley, Dopita, Evans, Groves, Sutherland, Binette Allen, Leitherer, 2003, in prep

Shock Grid: Sutherland, Dopita, Allen & Kewley, 2003, ApJS, to be submitted

Pre-run starburst models: Kewley et al. 2001, ApJ, 556, 121

Pre-run HII-region models: Dopita et al. 2000, ApJ, 542, 224.

Lisa Kewley